LIFE+09 PROJECT ENV/CY/000252

Action 1 will be undertaken by DLI in close collaboration with ESS.

In brief the following tasks will be undertaken:

  • Monitoring data analysis to develop a baseline of compliance (against the air quality framework directive 2008/50/EC)
  • Screening level identification of imports (station, wind direction)
  • Analysis of wind speed/direction and soil moisture versus PM levels; this uses a range of non-parametric statistical methods to analyse the driving forces of elevated dust (PM10/2.5) levels,  for different monitoring locations as an input to ACTION 05, calibration data for the dust entrainment model from natural sources;
  • Preparation of a 3 year meteorological data set (dynamic downscaling of NCEP re-analysis data with WRF/MM5, generating 3D data fields at 1 km and hourly resolution using high-performance cluster computing over the entire Cyprus model domain (240 by 240 km) as the basis for optimization modelling over the reference years (2007,2008, 2009);

Τhe proposed methods refer to “at least” 3 years of (initial) meteorological data from dynamic downscaling; these will primarily be used to identify characteristic episodes. For the calibration, we also need the corresponding land use/ landcover and activity (mining) data (initial/alternative source: European scale CORINE data) as well as pyrogenic emissions which limits the period that can reliably be used. Further analysis is based on the “characteristic episodes”.

Action 2 will be undertaken by DLI with the contribution of ATL and the Atlantis’s Subcontractor University of Crete.

In brief the following tasks will be undertaken:

  • Sampling strategy and plan, to be prepared as an initial guidance for the subsequent field and laboratory work, first three month of the ACTION;
  • Compilation of samples, local pre-processing, shipping to the subcontractor University of Crete, over the entire duration of the ACTION, times according to the sampling plan;
  • Analysis of samples (chemical and mineralogical analysis) for source attribution at the University of Crete, over the entire duration of the ACTION, timed according to the sampling plan.
  • Statistical analysis of source attribution, based on the final chemical analysis, during the final three months of the ACTION.

Action 3 will be undertaken by CUT.

In brief the following tasks will be undertaken:

  • Land use/land cover analysis
  • Identification of major source areas (open cast mining)
  • Regional aerosol detection (MODIS based) aerosol optical properties
  • Implementation of an operational analysis system (ACTION 05) linked to the air quality modelling for (a) data assimilation and (b) model validation.

Satellite remote sensing is a valuable tool for assessing and mapping air pollution providing complete and synoptic views of large areas in one image on a systematic basis due to the good temporal resolution of various satellite sensors. The key parameter for assessing atmospheric or air pollution in photochemical air pollution studies is the aerosol optical thickness, which is also the most important unknown of every atmospheric correction algorithm for solving the radiative transfer (RT) equation and removing atmospheric effects from satellite remotely sensed images. The aerosol optical thickness derived from the atmospheric path radiance has been used as a tool of assessing atmospheric pollution.

The methods for determining the aerosol optical properties  (aerosol optical thickness) include ground measurements using Sun-photometers and/or "the ocean method" applied over clear water using visible data or infrared data; the "brightness method" applied above land using data in the visible spectrum; the "contrast-reduction method"' applicable over land or a mixture of land and water; the "dark vegetation method" using long-wavelength visible data; the "temperature attenuation" procedure; and the "differential textural analysis" method.

Action 4 will be undertaken by ESS in close collaboration with CUT.

As a preparatory step (first three months in the ACTION), the European scale EMEP emission data set (last published version for 2007) will be extended towards the East and South to provide a more complete framework for the estimation of boundary conditions for Cyprus;For the local emissions, a dust entrainment model will be adapted from EUREKA E! 3266 WEBAIR to generate dynamic source terms for the Cyprus model domain, activities starting with a 3 months delay to the end of the A06.The results of the dust entrainment and re-suspension model will be compared with both the monitoring data (ACTION 01) and the remote sensing data from ACTION A03, parallel to task 6.4. This will also explore the potential of using the satellite data for data assimilation to improve the emission model performance.Model validation for the local entrainment model will use selected episodes where monitoring data and/or satellite data are available for comparison of model results and observations.CAMx will be run for the 3rd city level domains at 250 m resolution (subject to sensitivity and validation tests) which however, approaches the limits of roughness based parametrization of diffusion. Please note that the next higher level of resolution is provided by the local (inner city) street canyon model.The correspondence with the satellite imagery (MODIS) at 250 m is only given for the 660 nm band, while 470 nm and 550 nm are available with a 500 m resolution (higher bands 8-36 at 1,000 m). These data are yielding a statistically robust “product” at a 10 km resolution, which for the primary model domain amounts to more than 400 observation points for model comparison.

Action 5 will be undertaken by ESS in close collaboration with CUT.The Action will include:

  • On the basis of the extended emission data set from A 04, estimates of long range transport of PM and imports to Cyprus will be based on the wind field generated in A01 and the 3D nested grid Eulerian model CAMx to generate dynamic boundary conditions for the Cyprus model domain (two way coupling).
  • The models will be set up as a two-way coupled nested grid model system (with the continental scale EMEP grid model as an outer domain for dynamic boundary conditions from long-range transport) for the Cyprus model domain 240 by 240 km) with several nested urban city domain (Nicosia, Limassol, Paphos, Larnaka, etc.) to generate one or more baseline runs corresponding to the baseline established by data analysis in A01;
  • Model validation: scenarios of selected episode (with maximum concentration or strong dynamics) identified from the data analysis, reproduced by the model system, validated with monitoring data and remote sensing data
  • Operational implementation (continuous real-time runs) of the model system driven by GFS numerical meteorological forecasts (WRF/MM5) and dynamic emission modelling, data assimilation with monitoring and RS data.
  • Public information: the model/forecast results (e.g., general information and threshold exceedances) are posted and continuously updated on the project web site, web browser and 3G phone access, parallel implementation of a SMS/MMs based subscription service for registered stakeholders.

Action 6 will be undertaken by AUTH with the collaboration of DLI.

The main aim of this task will be to quantify local anthropogenic contributions to the hotspot PM concentrations with a focus in the urban areas. 

In brief the following tasks will be undertaken:

  • Planning and preparation of model runs
  • Street scale emission estimation
  • Input data collection, model configuration
  • Model runs
  • Analysis of model results

ESS will be the leader beneficiary of this Action with the contribution of DLI.

The Action 7 will include:

  • Defining a preference structure for the optimization in terms of Criteria, objectives, constraints, a reference point (target solution); for this step, the active participation of selected stakeholder will be organized in a workshop for participatory decision making;
  • Selection of source class specific strategies, measures, or technologies for emission reduction together with: investment and operating costs, emission reduction efficiencies
  • Implementation and operation of the model system for the generation of alternatives,  iterative approach of adaptive heuristics to generate alternative followed by analysis of the decision space structure until a satisfactory alternative (feasible, non-dominated) can be identified.

Action 8 will be undertaken by ATL in close collaboration with DLI.

The dust management plan (a component of the overall air quality management plan according to 2008/50/EC) will be based on the results of the main input groups, consolidating them into a policy oriented framework and plan for action.

The exact constituents of the proposed Management Plan can not be foreseen at present as they will largely depend on the results of the technical and socioeconomic studies. However, the main foreseen improvements and additions to the existing plan include the following.

  • Existing and a series of additional measures will be examined.
  • Measures and actions will be assessed in terms of quantitative benefits and socioeconomic impacts while at present analysis is qualitative.
  • Measures and strategies will be prioritised based on effectiveness and efficiency, whereas efficiency will incorporate socioeconomic impacts.

The procedure for approving air quality management plans is well defined through legislation and needs to be followed. We would like to stress that the DLI is the Competent Authority for the preparation of air quality management plans. As such it is in the best possible position to ensure the approval and implementation of selected measures. The DLI will undertake a thorough consultation process in order to ensure that the selected measures enjoy widespread acceptance by the involved stakeholders. Special attention will be paid to the Department of Town Planning and Housing and the Public Works Department to ensure that measures are consistent with development plans.

Initially, results with regard to the relative contributions of transboundary transfer and natural sources will be analysed in order to produce estimates of the contributions to PM measurements of local sources. This activity will be useful in determining realistic and verified total PM reduction targets.

Secondly Source specific realistic emission reduction targets will be set. This activity will rely on a rigorous monitoring, oryctological testing and modelling (including back tracking) procedure in order to allocate the relative contributions of the key PM contributors. Emphasis will be given to the major anthropogenic activities such as road traffic, industrial (focussing on the cement industry, brick industry, quarrying and rod traffic) and agricultural practices.

Maximum expected targets will be estimated in order to prepare a range of possible PM reduction options. These will be based on BMPs and results of consultations with stakeholders, with emphasis on industry representatives and experts from Competent Authorities.  

Subsequently, the Airware Optimisation tools will be applied in order to develop a set of measures that most efficiently achieve the total PM reduction targets. For this purpose, technical feasibility, economic factors and acceptance of the measures by competent authorities and the public will be considered.

Once the measures are defined, a complete document constituting the Dust Management Plan will be prepared. The document will include a full description of the defined PM reduction measures, assignment of responsibilities for monitoring and implementation, documentation on technical methods and guides where applicable, and scheduling of implementation. The Dust Management Plan will be submitted to the Air Quality Technical Committee for opinion and suggestions before being finalised.
Due to the time constraints of the project the reduction measures provided by the Plan will not be implemented during the project.


Action 9 will be undertaken by ATL in close collaboration with DLI, ESS, CUT, AUTH.

The first task during months 1 to 4 is the development of a detailed Dissemination plan that will serve as a checklist and guidelines for all dissemination activities.
To prepare the involvement of actors and stakeholders, a database of stakeholders (institutions and individuals) will be established as part of the project web server to facilitate access by all project partners.

An important element of dissemination is the involvement of the media such as press releases or coverage in specific science or environmental programs, newspaper features, radio interviews etc. Regular contact to representatives of the media will be maintained.

A major task is the design and subsequent distribution of the information products defined in the Dissemination Plan. These include, other than the project web server and on-line material (see below) more traditional methods and formats such as project folder, leaflets for distribution at workshops and conferences, and the template and common material for any publications. Information products will be available by mid-term, but upgraded in the second half of the project.

All dissemination material will also be available in electronic form through the project web server, which will (a) maintain communication between the project partners and (b) provide public access to all project results, data and tools. The basic web server will be operational by the end of the third project months, its content and CRM tools being updated over the entire project period.

Lastly, Project Results will be presented in an end of project workshop. The workshop will target the Competent Bodies, Local Authorities, Industry and Academia.
This Action aims to:

  • Promote communication, collaboration and organisation among the partners involved in order to complete the project within the required time frame.
  • Monitor and solve any problems that may come up during the project’s completion
  • Organise and carry out a structured, efficient and effective completion of the tasks
  • Ensure the project results conform to the project’s objectives set within the LIFE + programme.
  • Identify problems at an early stage and enforce corrective measures where necessary
  • Report to and liaison with the European Commission and dissemination of results


The project proposed involves five project partners, three based in Cyprus and two in two other EU countries. Further the project is complex, technically challenging and requires good synchronisation between actions in order to achieve the proposed schedule. Therefore, even though all organisations are experienced in the implementation and management of large and EU funded projects, effective project management is considered key to the project’s success. An efficient project management mechanism will have to be developed, in order to achieve the utmost inter-partner co‑operation and the timely fulfilment of their responsibilities.

The DLI will be responsible for co-ordinating, monitoring and managing the project, while ATLANTIS will support with the technical coordination and control issues. All partners will be responsible for the proper and timely execution of their tasks and submission of the material and data that will be agreed upon according to the defined timetable and Actions.

DLI will have the leading role in the team and will act as the main beneficiary and coordinator of the project. Administrative Management by DLI will be supported by ATLANTIS. The hierarchy of the team is presented in the following chart.

 

 

The Project Manager will be responsible for: 1) the financial management of the project and 2) liaison with the Commission and 3) the compilation of reports. The project manager will supervise work flow through monitoring reports (ACTION 11) which will be prepared by the monitoring committee. Action Leaders will be responsible for the preparation and of technical reports while the Monitoring committee will be responsible for preparing the deliverables monitoring assessments and the periodic monitoring reports.

In brief the following tasks will be undertaken:

  • Kick off meeting
  • Project Meetings
  • Preparation of project minutes
  • Compilation of Project Reports
  • Preparation of Technical and Financial reports
  • Organisation of dissemination events
  • Liaison with stakeholders


Action 11 will be undertaken by DLI in close collaboration with ATL and ESS.

For the Monitoring of the project, a monitoring committee chaired by DLI will be created. The committee will have one member from each of the partners (beneficiaries) organisations.

Monitoring will be implemented through the control of foreseen deliverables and milestones as defined below.

Monitoring conclusions and recommendations for corrective actions will be disseminated to the Project Coordinator and the relevant Action Leader.  Action Leaders will need to respond on how and when the recommendations will be implemented. Modified deliverables will be resubmitted upon completion. Every three months the monitoring team will review the project progress and prepare a summary review of results. The review will include the control of implementation of corrective recommendations.
Action 12 will be undertaken by DLI.

This ACTION aims to produce a communication plan which will be implemented after the completion of the project.

The Communication Plan Goals will include the following:

  • Dissemination of the Dust Management Plan.
  • Widespread dissemination of monitoring and remote sensing results concerning air quality.
  • Promotion of the measures foreseen in the dust management plan.

The Communication Plan will make use of a number of deliverables prepared during the project and especially the Dust Management Plan.

The Communication Plan will be based on the preparation and dissemination of electronic material provided over the internet. In particular it is foreseen that the currently running air quality website managed by the DLI’s Air Quality Section, will be suitably modified to support the dissemination of the new material.

The Action Plan will be prepared during Months 23-24.

This project is supported by the European Commission under the LIFE+ Environment and Governance Programme.

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